Development and evaluation of a sensitive, Diffusive Gradients in Thin-Films (DGT) method for determining microcystin-LR concentrations in freshwater and seawater

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6 Scopus citations

Abstract

A Diffusive Gradients in Thin-Films (DGT) passive sampling technique was developed for microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and toxic microcystins. Three types of resins (HP20, SP700, and XAD18) were evaluated for MC-LR uptake kinetics, capacities, and extraction efficiencies and simple procedures were developed for determining MC-LR concentration in binding disc extracts by Adda-ELISA (U.S. EPA Method 546). The XAD18-DGT/Adda-ELISA method had a 7-d deployment time detection limit of ≈0.05 μg/L and capacity of >250 μg/L of MC-LR in water samples which encompass U.S. EPA and WHO advisory concentrations for drinking and recreational waters. The XAD18-DGT/Adda-ELISA method determined time-averaged MC-LR concentrations in waters with wide ranging pH (4.9–8.3) and ionic strength (0.04–0.8 M) under well-stirred and quiescent conditions with 90–101% accuracy. In addition to high sensitivity and accuracy, the method is simple, inexpensive, and applicable for determining MC-LR and related MCs concentrations in waterbodies with wide ranging chemical characteristics and hydrodynamic conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101668
JournalHarmful Algae
Volume89
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author expresses her sincere appreciation for research support from the Hatch Multistate Research Fund (MRF) provided by National Institute of Food and Agriculture for project W3170-Beneficial Reuse of Residuals and Reclaimed Water: Impact on Soil Ecosystem and Human Health. [CG]

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • Adda-enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA)
  • Algal toxins
  • Diffusive boundary layer (DBL)
  • Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT)
  • Passive sampling
  • U.S. EPA method 546

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Plant Science

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