Development and psychometric evaluation of the paternal involvement with infants scale

Daniel B. Singley, Brian P. Cole, Joseph H. Hammer, Sonia Molloy, Alexander Rowell, Anthony Isacco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


A growing body of research reflects the need to focus on fathers' involvement with their infants. For many years, this was assessed by such domains as cohabitation, financial contributions, and/or asking mothers to rate the quality and quantity of the father's interactions with their children. Current scholarship has designated father involvement as a multifaceted construct, reflective of changing gender roles of men and fathers in the United States. However, there exists no self-report instrument of father's involvement with their infants that adequately measures the multifaceted components of the construct. The current project aims to develop a psychometrically sound, theoretically grounded instrument of father involvement. The Paternal Involvement With Infants Scale (PIWIS) is a self-report instrument that assesses a variety of ways in which new fathers are involved with their infant. In Sample 1, fathers of infants (N = 456) completed the PIWIS. Exploratory factor analyses (n = 250) and confirmatory factor analyses (n = 206) supported a 5-factor solution including positive engagement, indirect care, frustration, warmth and attunement, and control and process subscales. Sample 2 (N = 57) participants completed the PIWIS 4 weeks apart in order to provide test-retest reliability scores (r's > .51). Concurrent evidence of validity was established via significant positive correlations with theoretically related measures of social support, paternal engagement, infant care self-efficacy, parental alliance, parental satisfaction, and overall life satisfaction as well as negative correlations with gender role conflict and depression. Clinical implications and implications for future research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-183
Number of pages17
JournalPsychology of Men and Masculinity
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 American Psychological Association.


  • Father
  • Infants
  • Paternal involvement
  • Postpartum
  • Scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Social Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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