Development and testing of the Dutch Heart Failure Knowledge Scale

Martje H.L. Van Der Wal, Tiny Jaarsma, Debra K. Moser, Dirk J. Van Veldhuisen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

152 Scopus citations


Background: Heart failure (HF) knowledge as well as compliance are considered to be underlying mechanisms of the effects of HF management programs. However, there are no valid and reliable measurement instruments available which measures knowledge of HF patients. Aim: To develop a reliable and valid instrument, which measures the knowledge, patients have on their disease and the HF-related health care regimen. Methods: The HF knowledge scale was developed in 3 phases; (1) concept analysis and first construction, (2) revision of items and (3) testing for validity and reliability. Results: The Dutch HF knowledge scale is a 15-item, self-administered questionnaire that covers items concerning HF knowledge in general, knowledge on HF treatment (including diet and fluid restriction) and HF symptoms and symptom recognition. Face validity as well as content and construct validity was tested in HF patients in 19 hospitals in the Netherlands. The scale was able to differentiate between HF patients with high and low level of HF knowledge. Cronbach's α of the knowledge scale in this population (n = 902) was .62. Conclusion: The instrument is a valid and reliable scale that can be used in research to gain insight in the effect of education and counselling of HF patients. After additional testing, the instrument seems to be a valid and reliable scale to be used in clinical practice to measure HF knowledge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-277
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2005

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank G. Cleuren and T. Veelenturf for providing their data for analysis. This study was supported by the Netherlands Heart Foundation (Grant 2000Z003).


  • Heart failure
  • Knowledge
  • Nursing
  • Patient education
  • Scale
  • Self-care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Medical–Surgical
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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