Development of a rapid and simple protocol for oil quantification of small (mg) mass oil seed samples

Ahmed AL Bakri, Maythem AL Amery, Kai Su, Robert Geneve, Mark Crocker, Nicholas Teets, Paul Armstrong, Pradeep Kachroo, David Hildebrand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Efficient and accurate determination of oil content is useful for small mass oilseeds and analysis of single seed chips. Results: This study evaluated twelve different methods of seed oil extraction and quantification, including methods that have not previously been applied to oilseeds. The aim of the study was to evaluate and develop efficient and inexpensive techniques that reliably work with small mass amounts of seeds. The Soxhlet method was used as a standard control. Twelve oilseed samples (eleven soybean and one chia) covering an oil content range of 15.5–32.7% (dry weight) were used. The Folch technique provided a higher percentage of oil extraction compared to Bligh and Dyer and hexane-isopropanol techniques. There was not a significant difference (P > 0.05) between the Folch and Soxhlet technique. A supercritical fluid extraction method yielded significantly lower amounts of oil extraction compared to the Soxhlet method. A direct transesterification (DT) method yielded significantly higher oil levels in seeds that contained low moisture content. Together, our results show that bead beating extraction (BBE) developed in this study was highly correlated with the Soxhlet method (R2 = 0.88). This involves direct pulverization, extraction and transesterification of glycerolipids in 2 mL tubes processed in a bead beater for 40 s followed by gas chromatography. Conclusions: This BBE method was the simplest, fastest and least expensive.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102715
JournalBiocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the Committee for Higher Education and Development in Iraq (HCED) , for their financial support for Ahmed AL-Bakri. This research was supported in part by the United Soybean Board , the Kentucky Small Grain Growers Association , the University of Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station , Department of Plant and Soil Sciences , Center for Applied Energy Research , Department of Entomology , Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Center for Applied Energy Research, Department of Entomology.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023


  • Bead beating extraction
  • Chia
  • Oil quantification
  • Oilseeds
  • Soybeans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Bioengineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Development of a rapid and simple protocol for oil quantification of small (mg) mass oil seed samples'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this