Development of Synthetically Accessible Glycolated Polythiophenes for High-Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors

Bowen Ding, Vianna Le, Hang Yu, Guanchen Wu, Adam V. Marsh, Edgar Gutiérrez-Fernández, Nicolás Ramos, Martina Rimmele, Jaime Martín, Jenny Nelson, Alexandra F. Paterson, Martin Heeney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Four glycolated polythiophene-based organic mixed ionic-electronic conductors (OMIECs), PE2gTT, PE2gT, PT2gTT, and PT2gT are prepared by atom-efficient direct arylation polymerization, avoiding the need for toxic organometallic precursors. PE2gT, PT2gTT, and PT2gT are operable in p-type accumulation mode organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), with PT2gT displaying the best device performance with a µC* product figure-of-merit of 290 F cm−1 V−1 s−1. A record volumetric capacitance among p-type glycolated polythiophene OMIECs of 313 F cm−3 is observed for PE2gT, ascribed to the high proportionality of polar components in its materials design. The good OECT performance of PE2gT with µC* = 84.2 F cm−1 V−1 s−1, comparable with state-of-the-art poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) devices, coupled with its synthetic accessibility and favorable accumulation mode operation makes PE2gT an ideal glycolated alternative to PEDOT:PSS in bioelectronics. PE2gT with the least negative threshold voltage also displays the best OECT operational cycling stability, linked to better resistance of its oxidized state against parasitic redox side reactions. Shelf life stability of OECTs stored (without bias) is observed to be better for materials with a more negative threshold voltage and higher average molecular weight (PT2gT), that are less susceptible to ambient auto-oxidation and film delamination.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2300580
JournalAdvanced Electronic Materials
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Authors. Advanced Electronic Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • bioelectronics
  • organic electrochemical transistors
  • organic electronics
  • polymers
  • semiconductors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


Dive into the research topics of 'Development of Synthetically Accessible Glycolated Polythiophenes for High-Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this