Lakes are significant sources in global methane (CH4) budgets. However, estimations of the magnitude of global CH4 emissions from lakes may be highly biased owing to the uncertainties in data originating from observation times, methods, and parameterizations of the gas transfer velocity (k). Here, we conducted continuous 48-hour measurements of CH4 fluxes using the floating chamber method seasonally at Lake Baihua, a small reservoir in southwestern China, and compared the results with estimates derived from boundary layer models. Results showed that there was a weak dependency of k on wind speed, indicating that wind speed was not the major factor regulating gas exchange in such small lakes. It is thus concluded that the wind speed-dependent boundary layer model method is not suitable for CH4 flux observations in small and medium-sized lake, and that the floating chamber method is recommended for use instead. The measured CH4 fluxes displayed remarkably diurnal patterns, therefore the use of single observations to represent daily average values comes with unacceptably large uncertainties. A reasonable alternative is averaging observations made at sunrise and at sunset to represent daily values, which has a much smaller uncertainty (ranging from 0.8% to 13.6%). The coincident peaks of CH4 and chlorophyll concentrations in the subsurface indicate that CH4 originated mainly from aerobic methanogenesis. Solar radiation is likely one of the major factors regulating CH4 production and emissions in the lake through enhancing CH4 production, inhibiting CH4 oxidation, and probably changing hydrodynamics conditions. Therefore, irradiation should be taken into consideration as a key factor in observing CH4 fluxes in lakes. As sampling times are limited, observations during both sunny and cloudy weather should be proportionally included. This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that solar radiation has been proposed as a key driver of CH4 emissions from lakes.
|Journal||Science of the Total Environment|
|State||Published - Aug 25 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was financially supported by the Key R&D Program of Yunnan Province ( 2019BC002 ), the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 41877407 , 92047204 , and 91547117 ), the National Key Research and Development Program of China ( 2016YFA0601003 ), and the Project of Scientific Research of China Huaneng Group Co., LTD ( HNKJ18-H23 ). The manuscript greatly benefited from the constructive reviews of three anonymous reviewers.
This work was financially supported by the Key R&D Program of Yunnan Province (2019BC002), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41877407, 92047204, and 91547117), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0601003), and the Project of Scientific Research of China Huaneng Group Co. LTD (HNKJ18-H23). The manuscript greatly benefited from the constructive reviews of three anonymous reviewers.
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.
- Diurnal variation
- Methane flux
- Observation methods and timing
- Small and medium-sized lakes
- Solar radiation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal