Dietary patterns associated with stroke among West Africans: A case–control study

Akinkunmi P. Okekunle, Osahon Asowata, Onoja M. Akpa, Bruce Ovbiagele, Adekunle Fakunle, Morenikeji Komolafe, Oyedunni Arulogun, Fred S. Sarfo, Albert Akpalu, Reginald Obiako, Kolawole Wahab, Godwin Osaigbovo, Lukman Owolabi, Godwin Ogbole, Joshua Akinyemi, Sunday Adeniyi, Benedict Calys-Tagoe, Mayowa Aridegbe, Akintunde Adebowale, Hamisu DambattaAtinuke Agunloye, Olalekan Oyinloye, Adeniyi Aderibigbe, Isah Suleiman, Abiodun M. Adeoye, Josephine Akpalu, Obiageli Agbogu-Ike, Hemant K. Tiwari, Donna Arnett, Rufus Akinyemi, Mayowa O. Owolabi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: The relationship of diet with stroke risk among Africans is not well understood. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and stroke risk among West Africans. Methods: In this multi-center case–control study, 3684 stroke patients matched (for age and sex) with 3684 healthy controls were recruited from Nigeria and Ghana. Food consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were summarized using principal component analysis. Stroke was defined using predefined criteria primarily on clinical evaluation following standard guidelines. Conditional logistic regression was applied to compute odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for stroke risk by tertiles of dietary patterns adjusting for relevant confounders. Results: Overall, mean age was 59.0 ± 13.9 years, and 3992 (54.2%) were males. Seven dietary patterns were identified. Multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) for risk of stroke by second and third tertiles (using the lowest and first tertile as reference) of dietary patterns was 1.65 (1.43, 1.90) and 1.74 (1.51, 2.02), for “poultry product and organ meat”; 1.69 (1.47, 1.96) and 1.51 (1.31, 1.75) for “red meat”; 1.07 (0.92, 1.23) and 1.21 (1.04, 1.40) for “fried foods and sweetened drinks”; 0.69 (0.60, 0.80) and 0.45 (0.39, 0.53) for “vegetables”; 0.84 (0.72, 0.97) and 0.81 (0.70, 0.93) for “whole-grain and fruit drinks”; and 0.97 (0.84, 1.12) and 0.85 (0.73, 0.98) for “fruits” respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: These data suggest that plant-based diets are associated with a lower risk of stroke and might be a beneficial dietary recommendation for the primary prevention of stroke among Africans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-200
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Stroke
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 World Stroke Organization.


  • Diet
  • West Africans
  • principal component analysis
  • stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology


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