Differences and trends in antioxidant dietary intake in smokers and non-smokers, 1980-1992: The Minnesota Heart Survey

Elizabeth L.R. Phillips, Donna K. Arnett, John H. Himes, Paul G. McGovern, Henry Blackburn, Russell V. Luepker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: Differences and secular trends in dietary antioxidant vitamin intake (vitamins E, C, and β-carotene) in current non-smokers, light smokers, and heavy smokers were examined as part of the Minnesota Heart Survey. METHODS: Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in adults ages 25-74 years in 1980-82 (N = 1682), 1985-87 (N = 2326), and 1990-92 (N = 2487). Dietary information was obtained from a 24-hour dietary recall. Smoking was assessed through self-report. Intakes were adjusted for age, energy intake, body mass index, education level, and exercise level (vitamins E, C and β-carotene). RESULTS: Antioxidant vitamin intakes were significantly higher in non-smokers than in light (1-20 cig/day) and heavy smokers (>20 cig/day) when all three survey periods were combined. In men, mean vitamin E intake was 9.2 mg, 8.6 mg, and 7.8 mg for non-smokers, light smokers, and heavy smokers, respectively. Results were similar in men for β-carotene (non-smokers 1408 μg, light smokers 1287 μg, and heavy smokers 1064 μg), and vitamin C (non-smokers 81 mg, light smokers 67 mg, and heavy smokers 56 mg). Women had results of similar magnitude and direction. From 1980-92, secular trends in men showed non-significant increases from 1980-82 to 1990-92 in β-carotene (+6.1%), while decreases were observed in vitamins E (-1.1%) and C (-2.6%). In contrast, women had large decreases in all antioxidant vitamin intakes: vitamin E (-13%), vitamin C (-18.6%), and β-carotene (-16.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Light and heavy smokers had a significantly lower overall mean dietary antioxidant vitamin intake than non-smokers. Over the decade, antioxidant dietary intake remained relatively stable in men and decreased in women in Minneapolis-St. Paul, despite improvements in access to antioxidant rich fruits and vegetables. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-423
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Epidemiology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 2000


  • Antioxidant
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Diet
  • Population survey
  • Secular trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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