Differences in employment concerns between Hispanic and Caucasian persons with multiple sclerosis: A propensity score matching analysis

Phillip D. Rumrill, Jennifer Sánchez, Jia Rung Wu, Stuart Rumrill, Kanako Iwanaga, Jian Li, Fong Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Little is known about the experiences and concerns of Hispanic Americans with multiple sclerosis (MS), especially how their experiences and concerns compare to those of Caucasian Americans with MS. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in satisfaction with the overall employment situation between two matched samples of adults with MS, namely, Hispanics and Caucasians. METHODS: Participants in this study responded to a national survey of the employment and community living concerns of people with MS. A propensity score matching (PSM) procedure was used to match participants based on demographic and MS-related variables. RESULTS: A two-sample Hotelling T2 test revealed no statistically significant between-group differences on satisfaction regarding fair treatment in the workplace but between-group differences were observed on satisfaction regarding legal rights and personal-environmental resources related to work. CONCLUSIONS: Implications for future research and clinical practice in rehabilitation counseling in the COVID-19 era are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberjvr-201115
Pages (from-to)33-42
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Vocational Rehabilitation
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study has identified significant differences in the satisfaction that Hispanic Americans with MS and Caucasian Americans with MS ascribe to the overall employment situation in the areas of personal/environmental resources and legal rights. Hispanic participants in this study reported higher levels of satisfaction with employment issues in those two key areas. Although Hispanic respondents reported relatively high levels of satisfaction with the protection of their legal rights and their personal/environmental resources (and with their fair treatment in the workplace, for that matter), the fact that most Hispanic Americans with MS are unemployed warrants further inquiry to reconcile what This research was funded partly through a Health Care Delivery and Policy Research grant from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, New York, NY. The authors wish to thank the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, its participating chapters, and the study participants for their support and assistance with this research. This research was also supported by the Vocational Rehabilitation Technical Assistance Center on Targeted Communities grant (H264F150003) from the Department of Education. However, the ideas, opinions, and conclusions expressed do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and endorsement by the Federal Government should not be assumed. Funding for this study was furthermore provided by the University Research Institute at The University of Texas at El Paso. The findings, interpretations, and presentation, however, were solely completed by the authors with no input received from the University Research Institute or The University of Texas at El Paso. Lastly, preparation of this article was partly funded by the United States Department of Labor, Office of Disability Employment Policy in the amount of $3.5 million under Cooperative Agreement No. OD-32548-18-75-4-21. This document does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 - IOS Press. All rights reserved.


  • Multiple sclerosis
  • employment concerns
  • race/ethnicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Occupational Therapy


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