Dioxin-like pollutants increase hepatic flavin containing monooxygenase (FMO3) expression to promote synthesis of the pro-atherogenic nutrient biomarker trimethylamine N-oxide from dietary precursors

Michael C. Petriello, Jessie B. Hoffman, Manjula Sunkara, Banrida Wahlang, Jordan T. Perkins, Andrew J. Morris, Bernhard Hennig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

The etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is impacted by multiple modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors including dietary choices, genetic predisposition, and environmental exposures. However, mechanisms linking diet, exposure to pollutants, and CVD risk are largely unclear. Recent studies identified a strong link between plasma levels of nutrient-derived Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and coronary artery disease. Dietary precursors of TMAO include carnitine and phosphatidylcholine, which are abundant in animal-derived foods. Dioxin-like pollutants can upregulate a critical enzyme responsible for TMAO formation, hepatic flavin containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), but a link between dioxin-like PCBs, upregulation of FMO3, and increased TMAO has not been reported. Here, we show that mice exposed acutely to dioxin-like PCBs exhibit increased hepatic FMO3 mRNA, protein, as well as an increase in circulating levels of TMAO following oral administration of its metabolic precursors. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg). At 48 h post-PCB exposure, mice were subsequently given a single gavage of phosphatidylcholine dissolved in corn oil. Exposure to 5 μmole/kg PCB 126 resulted in greater than 100-fold increase in FMO3 mRNA expression, robust induction of FMO3 protein, and a 5-fold increase in TMAO levels compared with vehicle treated mice. We made similar observations in mice exposed to PCB 77 (49.6 mg/kg twice); stable isotope tracer studies revealed increased formation of plasma TMAO from an orally administered precursor trimethylamine (TMA). Taken together, these observations suggest a novel diet-toxicant interaction that results in increased production of a circulating biomarker of cardiovascular disease risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-153
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Volume33
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • FMO3
  • Nutrition
  • PCB toxicity
  • TMAO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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