Direct Measurement of Hydroxyl Radicals, Lipid Peroxidation, and Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption Following Unilateral Cortical Impact Head Injury in the Rat

Sarah L. Smith, Paula K. Andrus, Jue Rong Zhang, Edward D. Hall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

168 Scopus citations

Abstract

We present data correlating the time courses of hydroxyl radical (·OH) production, lipid peroxidation, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) damage following unilateral head injury in the rat. Using a controlled cortical impact device to inflict head injury, we have directly measured brain ·OH levels via the salicylate trapping method, and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) levels via the HPLC-chemiluminescence technique, at 5, 30, and 60 min postinjury. These results were then correlated with the time course of BBB disruption, as measured by the extravasation of Evans blue dye (EB) into the injured cortex, over the same time period. In the present study, ·OH levels were 62% higher than sham at 5 min postinjury, 25% higher at 15 min (both p ≤ 0.05), and no different from sham at 60 min. PCOOH, on the other hand, increased linearly between 5 and 60 min postinjury. Whereas PCOOH levels were 25% greater than sham at 5 min, they were 35% and 52% higher than sham at 30 and 60 min, respectively (both p ≤ 0.05 vs sham). Blood–brain barrier disruption followed a similar time course to PCOOH generation, except that the magnitude of the effect was much greater. Whereas EB extravasation was only slightly elevated in the injured cortex at 5 min postinjury, there was nearly an 8-fold increase at 30 min and an 11-fold increase at 60 min (all p ≤ 0.05 vs sham). An additional experiment demonstrated that BBB damage can be attenuated by treatment with the 21-aminosteroid lipid peroxidation inhibitor, tirilazad mesylate (U-74006F). Rats were given a single IV injection of 3 or 10 mg/kg of U-74006F 5 min postinjury and killed 30 min postinjury. The 10 mg/kg dose of U-74006F reduced EB extravasation 52% (p < 0.025) in comparison to vehicle-treated controls. This is the first study to correlate the time courses of ·OH formation, lipid peroxidation, and BBB disruption in injured brain. The results suggest that there is an immediate, posttraumatic burst in ·OH formation, followed by a progressive increase in lipid peroxidation and a similar, although slightly delayed, time-related opening of the BBB. The attenuation of BBB damage by U-74006F suggests that this chain of events can be interrupted by administration of an antioxidant/lipid peroxidation inhibitor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)393-404
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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