Direct observation of Li diffusion in Li-doped ZnO nanowires

Guohua Li, Lei Yu, Bethany M. Hudak, Yao Jen Chang, Hyeonjun Baek, Abhishek Sundararajan, Douglas R. Strachan, Gyu Chul Yi, Beth S. Guiton

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7 Scopus citations


The direct observation of Li diffusion in Li-doped zinc oxide nanowires (NWs) was realized by using in situ heating in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). A continuous increase of low atomic mass regions within a single NW was observed between 200 ° C and 600 ° C when heated in vacuum, which was explained by the conversion of interstitial to substitutional Li in the ZnO NW host lattice. A kick-out mechanism is introduced to explain the migration and conversion of the interstitial Li (Lii) to Zn-site substitutional Li (LiZn), and this mechanism is verified with low-temperature (11 K) photoluminescence measurements on as-grown and annealed Li-doped zinc oxide NWs, as well as the observation of an increase of NW surface roughing with applied bias.

Original languageEnglish
Article number054001
JournalMaterials Research Express
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the Global Research Laboratory Program (NRF-2015K1A1A2033332) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)(G-CY, GL, HB), supported by NASA Kentucky under NASA award No: NNX13AB12A (LY, Y-JC, BSG), and NASA award No: NNX10AL96H (BMH), and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, US Department of Energy (BSG). G Li also acknowledges support from Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 1608085ME99).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys


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