Grain bulk density varies widely depending on kernel properties and handling practices. The discrete element method (DEM) can model such behavior at the particle level, including wide-ranging interactions with equipment. The objective of this study was to develop a DEM model to predict wheat bulk density as affected by grain drop height and kernel size distribution. The bulk density of two wheat varieties was measured experimentally for a range of drop heights with a modified test weight per bushel apparatus and was simulated in EDEM v2018.1 using single-sphere and five-sphere particle models that accounted for three kernel size fractions. For both particle models, simulations matched the observed behavior, showing a bulk density increase with increasing drop height and bulk density differences between varieties due to different kernel size fractions. The single-sphere particle model predicted the bulk density with higher accuracy than the five-sphere particle model, while the five-sphere model, which more accurately represented the shape of wheat kernels, allowed better simulation of the heap profile at the cost of longer computation time. These particle models can be used to simulate bulk density of wheat under compaction and to improve prediction models of grain pack factor for wheat.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Journal of the ASABE|
|State||Published - 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the Andersons Research Grant Program and the USDA (CRIS No. 3020-43440-010-000-D).
© 2022 Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved.
- Bulk density
- Drop height
- Size distribution
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Soil Science
- Biomedical Engineering