Distribution and evolution of the serine/aspartate racemase family in invertebrates

Kouji Uda, Keita Abe, Yoko Dehara, Kiriko Mizobata, Natsumi Sogawa, Yuki Akagi, Mai Saigan, Atanas D. Radkov, Luke A. Moe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

Free d-amino acids have been found in various invertebrate phyla, while amino acid racemase genes have been identified in few species. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the distribution, function, and evolution of amino acid racemases in invertebrate animals. We searched the GenBank databases, and found 11 homologous serine racemase genes from eight species in eight different invertebrate phyla. The cloned genes were identified based on their maximum activity as Acropora millepora (Cnidaria) serine racemase (SerR) and aspartate racemase (AspR), Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) SerR, Capitella teleta (Annelida) SerR, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) SerR and AspR, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes) SerR, Milnesium tardigradum (Tardigrada) SerR, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda) SerR and AspR and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata) AspR. We found that Acropora, Aplysia, Capitella, Crassostrea and Penaeus had two amino acid racemase paralogous genes and these paralogous genes have evolved independently by gene duplication at their recent ancestral species. The transcriptome analyses using available SRA data and enzyme kinetic data suggested that these paralogous genes are expressed in different tissues and have different functions in vivo. Phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that animal SerR and AspR are not separated by their particular racemase functions and form a serine/aspartate racemase family cluster. Our results revealed that SerR and AspR are more widely distributed among invertebrates than previously known. Moreover, we propose that the triple serine loop motif at amino acid positions 150-152 may be responsible for the large aspartate racemase activity and the AspR evolution from SerR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)387-402
Number of pages16
JournalAmino Acids
Volume48
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Japan to KU (24770068 and 15K07152).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Keywords

  • Aspartate racemase
  • Serine racemase
  • d-Amino acid
  • d-Asp
  • d-Ser

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Distribution and evolution of the serine/aspartate racemase family in invertebrates'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this