Divergence-Conforming Constrained Basis Functions for Hexahedral Volume Elements

Robert A. Pfeiffer, John C. Young, Robert J. Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This communication presents an algebraic method for constructing arbitrary-order, divergence-conforming basis functions on hexahedral volume elements. The appropriate constraints within and on the boundaries of elements are provided. In particular, the handling of faces where quantities are discontinuous is discussed. The resulting bases are numerically characterized in terms of error convergence and system conditioning for a moment method discretization of the electric field volume integral equation for dielectric scatterers. Results show the accuracy of the proposed method as well as the low system matrix condition number that can be maintained as the basis order and mesh discretization are increased.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8115191
Pages (from-to)501-504
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1963-2012 IEEE.


  • Basis functions
  • constrained bases
  • method of moments (MoM)
  • volume integral equations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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