DNA microarray technology in the clinical environment: The Amplichip CYP450 test for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping

Jose de Leon, Margaret T. Susce, Maria Johnson, Mike Hardin, Lorraine Maw, Alison Shao, Antonette C.P. Allen, Francis A. Chiafari, Grantland Hillman, D. Michele Nikoloff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

80 Scopus citations


Introduction: An important technological advance in genetic testing is the DNA microarray, which allows for the simultaneous testing of thousands of DNA sequences. The AmpliChip CYP450 Test employs this microarray technology for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping. Isoenzymes encoded by these genes are responsible for the metabolism of many widely prescribed drugs. The objectives of this study were to identify CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 alleles and phenotypes in a psychiatric patient population in Kentucky, and to describe practical issues associated with DNA microarray technology. Methods: A total of 4,532 psychiatric patients were recruited from three state hospitals in Kentucky. Whole blood, buccal swabs, or saliva samples were genotyped with the AmpliChip CYP450 Test to derive a predicted phenotype. Results: In this cohort, the overall prevalence of CYP2D6 poor metabolizers was 7.6% (95% CI 7%, 8.3%), 8.2% in the Caucasians (95% CI 7.4%, 9.1%) and 1.8% in the African Americans (95% CI 0.9%, 3.5%). The overall prevalence of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers was 1.5% (95% CI 1.2%, 1.9%), 1.5% in the Caucasians (95% CI 1.1%, 1.9%) and 2.0% in the African Americans (95% CI 1.1%, 3.7%). The overall prevalence of CYP2C19 poor metabolizers was 2.0% (95% CI 1.8%, 2.7%), 2.2% in Caucasians (95% CI 1.6%, 2.5%) and 4.0% in African Americans (95% CI 2.6%, 6.1%). Conclusion: We also propose a numeric system for expression of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 enzyme activity to aid clinicians in determining treatment strategy for patients receiving therapeutics that are metabolized by the CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 gene products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-34
Number of pages16
JournalCNS Spectrums
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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