Background: Bone marrow (BM)- and adipose tissue (AT)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown potential as cell-based therapies for cartilage and bone injuries and are used increasingly in human and veterinary practice to facilitate the treatment of orthopedic conditions. However, human and rodent studies have documented a sharp decline in chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential with increasing donor age, which may be problematic for the important demographic of older orthopedic patients. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of donor age on the chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation performance of equine BM- and AT-MSCs in vitro. BM- and AT-MSCs and dermal fibroblasts (biological negative control) were harvested from horses in five different age groups (n = 4, N = 60); newborn (0 days), yearling (15–17 months), adult (5–8 years), middle-aged (12–18 years), and geriatric (≥ 22 years). Chondrogenic differentiation performance was assessed quantitatively by measuring pellet size, matrix proteoglycan levels, and gene expression of articular cartilage biomarkers. Osteogenic differentiation performance was assessed quantitatively by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression of bone biomarkers. Results: Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation performance of equine BM- and AT-MSCs declined with increasing donor age. BM-MSCs had a higher chondrogenic differentiation performance. AT-MSCs showed minimal chondrogenic differentiation performance in all age groups. For osteogenesis, alkaline phosphatase activity was also higher in BM-MSCs, but BM-MSCs calcium deposition was affected by donor age earlier than AT-MSCs. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation performance of BM-MSCs exhibited a decline as early as between the newborn and yearling samples. Steady state levels of mRNA encoding growth factors, chondrogenic, and osteogenic biomarkers were lower with increasing donor age in both MSC types. Conclusions: The data showed that chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation performance of equine BM-MSCs declined already in yearlings, and that AT-MSCs showed minimal chondrogenic potential, but were affected later by donor age with regards to osteogenesis (calcium deposition). The results highlight the importance of donor age considerations and MSC selection for cell-based treatment of orthopedic injuries and will help inform clinicians on when to implement or potentially cryopreserve cells. Moreover, the study provides molecular targets affected by donor age.
|Journal||BMC Veterinary Research|
|State||Published - Dec 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The study was partly funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark (NIH 133500133B), Hesteafgiftsfonden, Foreningen KUSTOS af 1881, and The Lourie Family Foundation. Funding organizations had no role in study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation, manuscript writing or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
© 2022, The Author(s).
- Donor age
- Mesenchymal stromal cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Veterinary (all)