Down Syndrome

Allison Caban-Holt, Elizabeth Head, Frederick Schmitt

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability (ID) and recent prevalence estimates suggest that there are 11.8 to 14.47 per 10,000 live births in the United States with DS. It is estimated that 250,000 people in the United States have DS. In turn, World Health Organization estimates for DS range between 10 to 11 in 10,000 live births worldwide. This chapter summarizes current knowledge on DS risk and prevalence, behavioral, psychiatric, physical, and neurological manifestations of the disease, and the effects of aging on cognitive functioning of individuals with DS. Potential early indicators of Alzheimer disease in DS and recommendations for complete evaluation of dementia in individuals with ID are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRosenberg's Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurological and Psychiatric Disease
Subtitle of host publicationFifth Edition
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9780124105294
StatePublished - Nov 13 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Alzheimer disease
  • Cognition
  • Comorbidities
  • Down syndrome
  • Lifespan
  • Prevalence
  • Trisomy 21

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (all)


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