The global burden of water-based lead (Pb) exposure on children is largely unknown; however, the importance of water sources as a path of Pb exposure is receiving increased attention due to recent prominent exposure events related to corroded plumbing infrastructure in the US. This study investigated the contribution of Pb in household drinking and cooking water to Pb levels in blood (PbB) and urine (PbU) within 353 early school-aged children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Additionally, the analysis considered the child's iron status and the water content of iron (WFe) and zinc (WZn) in relation to water Pb and blood/urine Pb concentrations. Lead concentrations for both PbB and PbU were fairly low (M ± SD: 4.2 ± 2.1 μg/dL; Median [5%, 95%]: 1.9 [0.6, 5.1 μg/L, respectively]); however 21% of the sample had a PbB >5 μg/dL but ≤ 10 μg/dL. Overall, there was little evidence of an association between water metal concentrations and children's PbB/PbU. However, when the sample was stratified by children's iron status, WPb was positively related to PbU, but negatively related to PbB in iron-replete children, even after adjusting for WFe and WZn. In iron-deficient children, there was no elevation in PbU with increasing WPb. In this sample of children with low Pb levels, there were no overwhelming relationships between WPb and either PbB or PbU, however, there was some evidence that iron-replete status promotes excretion of WPb.
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Dec 2018|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences / Fogarty International Center ( 1R21 ES16523 , PI: Kordas and 1R21 ES019949 , PI: Kordas).
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd
- Lead exposure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Chemistry (all)
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry