Dry vs. cryogenic orthogonal hard machining: An experimental investigation

D. Umbrello, S. Caruso, S. Di Renzo, A. D. Jayal, O. W. Dillon, I. S. Jawahir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Friction, and consequently heat generation in the cutting zone, significantly affects the tool life, surface integrity and dimensional accuracy, apart from other machining results. Application of a coolant in a cutting process can increase tool life and dimensional accuracy, decrease heat generation, and consequently cutting temperatures, reduce surface roughness and the amount of energy consumed in cutting process, and thus improve the productivity. Furthermore, coolant application also affects the surface microstructural alterations (i.e., white and dark layers) due to a machining operation, which have a significant influence on product performance and life. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation to determine the effects of cryogenic coolant application on tool wear, cutting forces and machined surface alterations during orthogonal machining of hardened AISI 52100 bearing steel (54±1HRC). Experiments were performed for dry and cryogenic cutting conditions using chamfered PCBN tool inserts at varying cutting conditions (cutting speed and feed rate). For cryogenic cutting conditions the fluid was applied in the form of a liquid nitrogen jet directed on the three shear cutting zones. Cutting forces, tool wear, cutting temperatures, surface hardness modifications and microstructure alterations were studied in order to evaluate the effects of extreme in-process cooling. The results indicate that cryogenic cooling has the potential to be used for surface integrity enhancement for improved product life and more sustainable functional performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)627-632
Number of pages6
JournalAIP Conference Proceedings
StatePublished - 2011


  • AISI 52100
  • Cryogenic cooling
  • Hard Turning
  • White layer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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