Dynamic conformal arcs-based single-isocenter VMAT planning technique for radiosurgery of multiple brain metastases

Damodar Pokhrel, Allison N. Palmiero, Mark E. Bernard, William St Clair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Multiple small beamlets in the delivery of highly modulated single-isocenter HyperArc VMAT plan can lead to dose delivery errors associated with small-field dosimetry, which can be a major concern for stereotactic radiosurgery for multiple brain lesions. Herein, we describe and compare a clinically valuable dynamic conformal arc (DCA)-based VMAT (DCA-VMAT) approach for stereotactic radiosurgery of multiple brain lesions using flattening filter free beams to minimize this effect. Original single-isocenter HyperArc style VMAT and DCA-VMAT plans were created on 7 patients with 2 to 8 brain lesions (total 35 lesions) for 10 MV- flattening filter free beam. 20 Gy was prescribed to each lesion. For identical planning criteria, DCA-VMAT utilizes user-controlled field aperture shaper before VMAT optimization. Plans were evaluated for conformity and target coverage, low- and intermediate dose spillages to brain volume that received more than 30% (V30%) and 50% (V50%) of prescription dose. Additionally, mean brain dose, V8, V12 and maximal dose to adjacent organs-at-risk (OAR) including hippocampi were reported. Total monitor units, beam modulation factor, treatment delivery efficiency, and accuracy were recorded. Comparing with original VMAT, DCA-VMAT plans provided similar tumor dose, target coverage and conformity, yet tighter radio-surgical dose distribution with lower dose to normal brain V30% (p = 0.009), V50% (p = 0.05) and other OAR including lower dose to hippocampi. Lower total number of monitor units and smaller beam modulation factor reduced beam on time by 2.82 min (p < 0.001), on average (maximum up to 3.8 min). Beam delivery accuracy was improved by 8%, on average (p < 0.001) and maximum up to 13% in some cases for DCA-VMAT plans. This novel DCA-VMAT approach provided excellent plan quality, reduced dose to normal brain, and other OAR while significantly reducing beam-on time for radiosurgery of multiple brain lesions–improving patient compliance and clinic workflow. It also provided less MLC modulation through the targets–potentially minimizing small field dosimetry errors as demonstrated by quality assurance results. Incorporating DCA-based VMAT optimization in HyperArc module for radiosurgery of multiple brain lesions merits future investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-200
Number of pages6
JournalMedical Dosimetry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists


  • FFF-beam
  • Multiple brain metastases
  • Radiosurgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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