Plus-stranded RNA viruses have limited coding capacity and have to co-opt numerous proviral host factors to support their replication. Many of the co-opted host factors support the biogenesis of the viral replication compartments and the formation of viral replicase complexes on subverted subcellular membrane surfaces. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) exploits peroxisomal membranes, whereas the closely-related carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) hijacks the outer membranes of mitochondria. How these organellar membranes can be recruited into pro-viral roles is not completely understood. Here, we show that the highly conserved Fis1 mitochondrial fission protein is co-opted by both TBSV and CIRV via direct interactions with the p33/p36 replication proteins. Deletion of FIS1 in yeast or knockdown of the homologous Fis1 in plants inhibits tombusvirus replication. Instead of the canonical function in mitochondrial fission and peroxisome division, the tethering function of Fis1 is exploited by tombusviruses to facilitate the subversion of membrane contact site (MCS) proteins and peroxisomal/mitochondrial membranes for the biogenesis of the replication compartment. We propose that the dynamic interactions of Fis1 with MCS proteins, such as the ER resident VAP tethering proteins, Sac1 PI4P phosphatase and the cytosolic OSBP-like oxysterol-binding proteins, promote the formation and facilitate the stabilization of virus-induced vMCSs, which enrich sterols within the replication compartment. We show that this novel function of Fis1 is exploited by tombusviruses to build nuclease-insensitive viral replication compartment.
|State||Published - Mar 2021|
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ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology