Dysregulation of Protein S in COVID-19

Martha M.S. Sim, Jeremy P. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been widely associated with increased thrombotic risk, with many different proposed mechanisms. One such mechanism is acquired deficiency of protein S (PS), a plasma protein that regulates coagulation and inflammatory processes, including complement activation and efferocytosis. Acquired PS deficiency is common in patients with severe viral infections and has been reported in multiple studies of COVID-19. This deficiency may be caused by consumption, degradation, or clearance of the protein, by decreased synthesis, or by binding of PS to other plasma proteins, which block its anticoagulant activity. Here, we review the functions of PS, the evidence of acquired PS deficiency in COVID-19 patients, the potential mechanisms of PS deficiency, and the evidence that those mechanisms may be occurring in COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101376
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Haematology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • C4b-binding protein
  • COVID-19
  • Protein S deficiency
  • TAM receptors
  • Thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Biochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Dysregulation of Protein S in COVID-19'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this