Early Gadolinium Enhancement for Determination of Area at Risk: A Preclinical Validation Study

Sophia Hammer-Hansen, Steve W. Leung, Li Yueh Hsu, Joel R. Wilson, Joni Taylor, Anders M. Greve, Jens Jakob Thune, Lars Køber, Peter Kellman, Andrew E. Arai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in a canine model of reperfused myocardial infarction depicts the area at risk (AAR) as determined by microsphere blood flow analysis. Background It remains controversial whether only the irreversibly injured myocardium enhances when CMR is performed in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Recently, EGE has been proposed as a measure of the AAR in acute myocardial infarction because it correlates well with T2-weighted imaging of the AAR, but this still requires pathological validation. Methods Eleven dogs underwent 2 h of coronary artery occlusion and 48 h of reperfusion before imaging at 1.5-T. EGE imaging was performed 3 min after contrast administration with coverage of the entire left ventricle. Late gadolinium enhancement imaging was performed between 10 and 15 min after contrast injection. AAR was defined as myocardium with blood flow <2 SD from remote myocardium determined by microspheres during occlusion. The size of infarction was determined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Results There was no significant difference in the size of enhancement by EGE compared with the size of AAR by microspheres (44.1 ± 15.8% vs. 42.7 ± 9.2%; p = 0.61), with good correlation (r = 0.88; p < 0.001) and good agreement by Bland-Altman analysis (mean bias 1.4 ± 17.4%). There was no difference in the size of enhancement by EGE compared with enhancement on native T1 and T2 maps. The size of EGE was significantly greater than the infarct by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (44.1 ± 15.8% vs. 20.7 ± 14.4%; p < 0.001) and late gadolinium enhancement (44.1 ± 15.8% vs. 23.5 ± 12.7%; p < 0.001). Conclusions At 3 min post-contrast, EGE correlated well with the AAR by microspheres and CMR and was greater than infarct size. Thus, EGE enhances both reversibly and irreversibly injured myocardium.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-139
Number of pages10
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation


  • acute myocardial infarction
  • area at risk
  • cardiac magnetic resonance
  • gadolinium enhancement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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