Education does not protect cognitive function from brain pathology in the ADNI 2 cohort

Christopher E. Bauer, Christopher A. Brown, Brian T. Gold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Educational attainment is widely accepted as a cognitive reserve variable. However, few studies have demonstrated that education statistically moderates the effects of pathology on cognition. Here, we explored this issue in a sample of 441 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort who had AD markers (Aβ42, tau, structural brain volumes) at baseline and underwent cognitive testing at baseline and at 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month time points. An AD-related biomarker (atrophy/pathology) composite at baseline was developed using stepwise backward linear regression. Potential moderation effects of education on the relationship between AD biomarkers and cognition were explored using linear mixed models. Education was positively correlated with cognition, and biomarkers were negatively correlated with cognition, across domains and diagnostic groups. However, education generally did not moderate the effects of biomarkers on baseline or longitudinal cognition. Our results do not support the hypothesis that education protects cognitive function from brain pathology in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort, questioning its accepted status as a reserve variable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-149
Number of pages3
JournalNeurobiology of Aging
Volume90
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
ADNI is funded by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and through generous contributions from the following: AbbVie, Alzheimer's Association; Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation; Araclon Biotech; BioClinica, Inc; Biogen; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; CereSpir, Inc; Cogstate; Eisai Inc; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Eli Lilly and Company; EuroImmun; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and its affiliated company Genentech, Inc; Fujirebio; GE Healthcare; IXICO Ltd; Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy Research & Development, LLC; Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development LLC; Lumosity; Lundbeck; Merck & Co., Inc; Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC; NeuroRx Research; Neurotrack Technologies; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Pfizer Inc; Piramal Imaging; Servier; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company; and Transition Therapeutics. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research is providing funds to support ADNI clinical sites in Canada. Private sector contributions are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health ( www.fnih.org ). The grantee organization is the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, and the study is coordinated by the Alzheimer's Therapeutic Research Institute at the University of Southern California. ADNI data are disseminated by the Laboratory for Neuro Imaging at the University of Southern California. This work was supported by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) ( National Institutes of Health Grant U01 AG024904 ) and DOD ADNI ( Department of Defense award number W81XWH-12-2–0012 ) and the National Institutes of Health (R01 AG055449). Appendix A

Funding Information:
ADNI is funded by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and through generous contributions from the following: AbbVie, Alzheimer's Association; Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation; Araclon Biotech; BioClinica, Inc; Biogen; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; CereSpir, Inc; Cogstate; Eisai Inc; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Eli Lilly and Company; EuroImmun; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and its affiliated company Genentech, Inc; Fujirebio; GE Healthcare; IXICO Ltd; Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy Research & Development, LLC; Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development LLC; Lumosity; Lundbeck; Merck & Co. Inc; Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC; NeuroRx Research; Neurotrack Technologies; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Pfizer Inc; Piramal Imaging; Servier; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company; and Transition Therapeutics. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research is providing funds to support ADNI clinical sites in Canada. Private sector contributions are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (www.fnih.org). The grantee organization is the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, and the study is coordinated by the Alzheimer's Therapeutic Research Institute at the University of Southern California. ADNI data are disseminated by the Laboratory for Neuro Imaging at the University of Southern California. This work was supported by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) (National Institutes of Health Grant U01 AG024904) and DOD ADNI (Department of Defense award number W81XWH-12-2–0012) and the National Institutes of Health (R01 AG055449).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Biomarkers
  • Cognition
  • Cognitive reserve
  • Education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (all)
  • Aging
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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