Effect of chewing gum containing Xylitol and blackberry powder on oral bacteria: A randomized controlled crossover trial

Craig S. Miller, Robert J. Danaher, Sree Kirakodu, Charles R. Carlson, Russell J. Mumper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The aim was to determine the effect of chewing gum containing xylitol and freeze-dried blackberry powder on oral bacteria. Design: This was a randomized, controlled, cross-over study (RCT #: NCT05133557). Fifty participants chewed gum over an 8 h period, four times for 20 min at 2-hour intervals, containing 700 mg xylitol (CG) with or without 50 mg blackberry powder (BG), while wearing a stent containing a sterile enamel chip. After a 1 week washout, participants chewed gum from the other group following the same protocol. The primary outcome was the amount of nine oral bacteria in saliva as determined by quantitative PCR. The secondary outcome was bacteria formed on enamel chips. Results: Chewing BG for four twenty-minute intervals reduced mean total bacteria load and the relative abundance of six of the nine bacteria studied in saliva (p < 0.05). In comparison, only four bacteria were reduced in abundance in the CG group. After gum chewing and regardless of group, S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii were the predominant bacteria adherent to enamel, with S. mutans representing < 1 % of the total bacteria on enamel. Conclusion: Bacterial loads in saliva were rapidly, differentially, and significantly reduced after one day of chewing BG.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105523
JournalArchives of Oral Biology
StatePublished - Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded in part by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research ( R42 DE018839 ) and the Delta Dental of Kentucky Clinical Research Center .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • Bacteria
  • Chewing gum
  • Dental caries
  • Microbiota
  • Saliva

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Dentistry (all)
  • Cell Biology


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