Effect of dexamethasone on antibody response of horses to vaccination with a combined equine influenza virus and equine herpesvirus-1 vaccine

Nicole Kreutzfeldt, Thomas M. Chambers, Stephanie Reedy, Kennedy Michelle Spann, Nicola Pusterla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Dexamethasone is routinely administered to horses but its effect on the antibody response to a commercial EIV/EHV vaccine is unclear. Hypothesis: Horses receiving dexamethasone will have lower postvaccination antibody levels against EIV and EHV-1 than vaccinated controls. Animals: Fifty-five healthy adult research horses. Methods: Randomized cohort study. Control (no vaccine, group 1), vaccination only (EIV/EHV-1/EHV-4, Prestige 2, Merck Animal Health, group 2), vaccination and concurrent single intravenous dose of dexamethasone (approximately.05 mg/kg, group 3), vaccination and 3 intravenous doses of dexamethasone at 24 hours intervals (group 4). Serum SAA levels were measured on day 1 and day 3. Antibody levels against EIV (hemagglutination inhibition assay, Kentucky 2014 antigen) and EHV-1 (multiplex ELISA targeting total IgG and IgG 4/7) were measured on day 1 and day 30. Results: Significantly increased mean antibody titers after vaccination were only noted against EIV and only after the vaccination alone (n = 14, prevaccine mean [prvm] 166.9, SD 259.6, 95% CI 16.95-316.8; postvaccine mean [povm] 249.1, SD 257.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 100.6-397.6, P =.02) and the single dose dexamethasone (n = 14, prvm 93.14, SD 72.2, CI 51.45-134.8; povm 185.1, SD 118, CI 116.7-253.6, P =.01), but not after multiple doses of dexamethasone (n = 14, prvm 194.3, SD 258.3, CI 45.16-343.4; povm 240.0, SD 235.7, CI 103.9-376.1, P >.05). Conclusion: The effect of dexamethasone on the postvaccine antibody response varies depending on the dosing frequency and the antigen-specific antibody type.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)424-430
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume38
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Keywords

  • corticosteroids
  • horse
  • immune
  • medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Veterinary

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