Whole wheat bread represents an important source of dietary fibre and micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins (B1, B2, B6). Thus it is important to control losses of vitamins during milling and breadmaking. The classical (yeast) breadmaking process is a relatively severe, leading to a 48% loss of thiamine in white bread. Longer fermentation times (white bread) led to higher thiamine concentrations (2.5 μg/g) than shorter fermentations (1.4 μg/g). In whole wheat bread, separate yeast or sourdough fermentations maintained vitamin B1 levels close to that of the original flour (5.5 μg/g). Whole wheat breadmaking with yeast (from kneading to final bread), in long fermentations, resulted in a 30% enrichment in riboflavin. The pyridoxine concentration of whole wheat flour is 5-fold higher than white flour, but classical fermentations resulted in a severe depletion in pyridoxine (-47%). The use of mixed fermentation conditions (yeast plus sourdough) had no synergistic impact on B vitamin levels. The classical breadmaking protocol is time-saving but does not result in maximal vitamin retention. Highest levels of B vitamins were achieved by long yeast fermentations.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Cereal Science|
|State||Published - Jul 2005|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was sponsored by the French Ministry of Industry and Finance (Program ASG ‘Cereal genotyping and food quality’ n° 01.04.90.6058). Thanks to all the members and collaborators.
- B vitamins
- Sourdough fermentation
- Yeast fermentation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science