Effective Preparation of Nanoscale CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Photosensitizers for Mesoporous TiO2-Based Solar Cells by Successive Precursor Layer Adsorption and Reaction Process

Myoung Kim, Seul Yi Lee, So Min Yoo, Sanghyun Paek, Yonghui Lee, Kyung Taek Cho, Iwan Zimmermann, Hae Yeon Kim, Beom Seok Kim, Min Kyeong Song, Taeho Shin, Kyoungsoo Kim, Aron J. Huckaba, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Hyo J. Lee

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nanoscale CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite sensitizers are grown by delivering each precursor successively onto the surface of mesoporous (meso) TiO2 electrodes. Using Pb(NO3)2 ions as a lead(II) source and CH3NH3I (MAI) for methylammonium and iodide sources, repetitive cycles of the two dipping steps are successful in growing few nanometer-sized MAPbI3 gradually on the TiO2 surface inside the meso-TiO2 film. However, some aggregates are observed on the top surface of the meso-TiO2 film due to slight dissolution of PbI2 and its accumulation/reaction with MAI at the top surface of the meso-TiO2 film. To solve this inhomogeneity of the deposition, a nondestructive multiple deposition route for nanoscale MAPbI3 is suggested as a successive precursor layer adsorption and reaction (SPLAR) process where, from the second cycle of deposition, PbI2 is delivered with the help of an ionic liquid compound dissolved in dichloromethane. With this new Pb precursor in less-polar solvents, nanoscale MAPbI3 sensitizers are grown without dissolution of preformed perovskites or formation of some aggregates at the top surface. After the third cycle of SPLAR deposition, about 7.0 nm–sized MAPbI3 sensitizers are prepared and display enhanced photovoltaic performance (7.18 ± 0.31%) compared with devices obtained from only one cycle (5.74 ± 0.30%).

Original languageEnglish
Article number1901186
JournalEnergy Technology
Volume8
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M.K., S.‐Y.L., and S.‐M.Y. contributed equally to this work. H.J.L. thanks the financial supports by the National Research Foundation (NRF‐2019R1A2C1003821 and NRF‐2017R1D1A1B03028570). M.K.N. acknowledges financial support from PFNM‐NM, Solaronix, Aubonne, Switzerland (CTI 25590.1); Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyota Motor Technical Centre, Advanced Technology Div., Hoge Wei 33, B‐1930 Zaventum, Belgium; and US Army grant agreement no. W911NF‐17‐2‐0122. T.S. acknowledges the support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. NRF‐2019R1H1A1079945) and K.K. thanks the financial support from the National Research Foundation (NRF‐2017R1D1A1B03036140). H.J.L. also thanks the Center for University‐Wide Research Facilities (CURF) at Chonbuk National University for analyzing samples by field‐emission scanning electron microscope (FE‐SEM). M.K. now works at Hanwha Q Cells & Advanced Materials in Korea.

Funding Information:
M.K., S.-Y.L., and S.-M.Y. contributed equally to this work. H.J.L. thanks the financial supports by the National Research Foundation (NRF-2019R1A2C1003821 and NRF-2017R1D1A1B03028570). M.K.N. acknowledges financial support from PFNM-NM, Solaronix, Aubonne, Switzerland (CTI 25590.1); Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyota Motor Technical Centre, Advanced Technology Div., Hoge Wei 33, B-1930 Zaventum, Belgium; and US Army grant agreement no. W911NF-17-2-0122. T.S. acknowledges the support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. NRF-2019R1H1A1079945) and K.K. thanks the financial support from the National Research Foundation (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03036140). H.J.L. also thanks the Center for University-Wide Research Facilities (CURF) at Chonbuk National University for analyzing samples by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). M.K. now works at Hanwha Q Cells & Advanced Materials in Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Keywords

  • nanoscale perovskites
  • photosensitizers
  • solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells
  • successive adsorption and reaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy (all)

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