Effects of different orthodontic retention protocols on the periodontal health of mandibular incisors

W. J. Rody, S. Elmaraghy, A. M. McNeight, C. A. Chamberlain, D. Antal, C. Dolce, T. T. Wheeler, S. P. McGorray, L. M. Shaddox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Objectives: To test the following two hypotheses: 1) different types of retainers result in distinct levels of biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and 2) the retainer bonded to all mandibular anterior teeth induces more detrimental outcomes to the periodontium. Setting and Sample Population: The Department of Orthodontics at the University of Florida. The population consisted of individuals in the retention phase of orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 36 individuals. Subjects in group 1 had retainers bonded to the mandibular canines only. Group 2 consisted of individuals having retainers bonded to all mandibular anterior teeth. Group 3 included patients using mandibular removable retainers. After clinical examination, GCF was collected from the mandibular incisor and biomarker levels were compared between the groups. Results: Plaque accumulation and gingivitis differed significantly among groups, with the highest median values in group 2 subjects. Pairwise comparison of the groups with respect to gingivitis showed significant differences between groups 1 and 2. Significant differences among groups were detected for RANKL, OPG, OPN, M-CSF, MMP-3, and MMP-9. The ratio RANKL/OPG was significantly higher in group 2 subjects, with pairwise comparisons indicating that groups 1 and 2 differed from group 3. Conclusion: An association was found between orthodontic retention groups and GCF biomarker levels, which should be further explored in longitudinal studies. The presence of retainers bonded to all anterior teeth seems to increase plaque accumulation and gingivitis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)198-208
Number of pages11
JournalOrthodontics and Craniofacial Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the University of Florida College of Dentistry (UFCD) seed grant funds. The authors have stated explicitly that there are no conflicts of interest in connection with this article.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd


  • biomarkers
  • gingival crevicular fluid
  • orthodontic retainers
  • periodontal disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics
  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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