Effects of herbicide management practices on the weed density and richness in 2,4-D-resistant cropping systems in Indiana

Connor L. Hodgskiss, Travis R. Legleiter, Bryan G. Young, William G. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Commercialization of 2,4-D-resistant soybean varieties allows for postemergence (POST) applications of 2,4-D in soybean. With the increase in POST applications of 2,4-D in soybean, shifts in weed populations may occur. A long-term field trial was conducted over 7 yr in a corn-soybean rotation. Weed populations were subjected to four herbicide strategies with variable levels of 2,4-D reliance. The strategies used included 1) diversified glyphosate strategy with six herbicide sites of action (SOAs); 2) 2,4-D reliant strategy with three SOAs; 3) diversified 2,4-D reliant strategy with seven SOAs; and 4) fully diversified strategy with eight SOAs. Soil residual herbicides were used for both corn and soybean years, except for the 2,4-D-reliant strategy, which used only a residual herbicide during the corn years. A 52% or greater reduction in weed densities for all herbicide strategies, except the 2,4-D-reliant strategy, was observed by the end of the study. However, the density of weeds tolerant to 2,4-D, such as monocots, increased after 3 yr of selection pressure, and more than doubled after 5 yr of selection pressure in the 2,4-D-reliant strategy. Additionally, in the 2,4-D-reliant strategy with three SOAs, species richness was 30% higher in the soil seedbank compared to herbicides strategies with six or more SOAs. In order to delay weed shifts, diversified herbicide strategies with more than three SOAs that include residual herbicides should be used in corn:soybean rotational systems that use 2,4-D-resistant soybean.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-136
Number of pages7
JournalWeed Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 27 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© William G. Johnson, 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Weed Science Society of America.


  • Glycine max (L.) Merr.
  • Nomenclature: 2,4-D
  • Zea mays L.
  • corn
  • soybean

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science


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