Effects of increasing distance of a one-on-one paraprofessional on student engagement

Caroline S. Russel, R. Allan Allday, Gary J. Duhon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This study sought to maintain task engagement of a 4-year-old student with developmental disabilities included in a pre-K classroom while decreasing reliance of one-on-one support from a paraprofessional. To accomplish these goals, a withdrawal design (A-B-A) with a nested changing-criterion design was used to withdraw paraprofessional proximity. A cue was provided to the paraprofessional as an indicator of when to engage with and withdraw proximity from the student. Momentary time sampling procedures were used to measure task engagement during group circle time and proximity between student and paraprofessional. Results showed that task engagement was maintained at a level comparable to peers without disabilities, while proximity less than 0.9 m from the student was reduced from 95% to 18% of intervals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-210
Number of pages18
JournalEducation and Treatment of Children
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, West Virginia University Press. All Rights Reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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