Effects of torrefaction on product distribution and quality of bio-oil from food waste pyrolysis in N2 and CO2

Hoang Vu Ly, Byeongwan Kwon, Jinsoo Kim, Changho Oh, Hyun Tae Hwang, Jung Suk Lee, Seung Soo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Waste food utilization to produce bio-oil through pyrolysis has received increasing attention. The feedstock can be utilized more efficiently as its properties are upgraded. In this work, the mixed food waste (MFW) was pretreated via torrefaction at moderate temperatures (250–275 °C) under an inert atmosphere before fast pyrolysis. The pyrolysis of torrified MFW (T-MFW) was performed in a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) to study the influence of torrefaction on the pyrolysis product distribution and bio-oil compositions. The highest liquid yield of 39.54 wt% was observed at a pyrolysis temperature of 450℃. The torrefaction has a significant effect on the pyrolysis process of MFW. After torrefaction, the higher heating values (HHVs) of the pyrolysis bio-oils (POs) ranged from 31.51 to 34.34 MJ/kg, which were higher than those of bio-oils from raw MFW (27.69–31.58 MJ/kg). The POs mainly contained aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkenes and ketones), phenolic, and N-containing derivatives. The pyrolysis of T-MFW was also carried out under the CO2 atmosphere. The application of CO2 as a carrier gas resulted in a decrease in the liquid yield and an increase in the gas product yield. In addition, the carbon and nitrogen content of POs increased, whereas the oxygen was reduced via the release of moisture and CO. Using CO2 in pyrolysis inhibited the generation of nitriles derivatives in POs, which are harmful to the environment. These results indicated that the application of CO2 to the thermal treatment of T-MFW could be feasible in energy production as well as environmental pollution control.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-26
Number of pages11
JournalWaste Management
StatePublished - Mar 15 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • CO utilization
  • Fast pyrolysis
  • Fluidized-bed
  • Mixed food waste
  • Torrefaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Waste Management and Disposal


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