The structure and evolution of Pd species in Pd-exchanged zeolite materials intended for use as passive NOx adsorbers were examined under various pretreatment conditions. Using in situ CO-diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, Pd structures were characterized after 500 °C pretreatments in inert (Ar), water (1-2% H2O in Ar), oxidizing (air), and reducing (H2, CO) atmospheres. Two zeolites of similar Si/Al ratios but different framework topologies (Beta, CHA) were found to show different distributions of Pd species, depending on the reducing agent used. Reduction in H2 (500 °C; 10% H2 in Ar) followed by re-oxidation (500 °C; air) led to higher amounts of single-site Pd ions on Pd-CHA than Pd-Beta, whereas high-temperature reduction in CO (500 °C; 1000 ppm CO in Ar) followed by re-oxidation (500 °C; air) led to significant loss of ionic Pd on both Pd-CHA and Pd-Beta, albeit H2 temperature-programmed reduction and XPS experiments suggest that this phenomena may be limited to surface Pd. High-temperature treatments with water (500 °C; 1-2% H2O in Ar) are shown to form either Pd metal or PdO particles, with Pd-Beta being more susceptible to these effects than Pd-CHA. This work suggests that the effects of CO are especially problematic with respect to the durability of these materials in passive NOx adsorption applications, especially in the case of Beta zeolite.
|Number of pages
|Published - Nov 9 2021
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Prof. Alexis Bell, Dr. Jeroen Van der Mynsbrugge, Dr. Andrew “Bean” Getsoian, Dr. Christine Lambert, and Dr. Joe Theis for their intellectual contributions to this work. This work was funded by the Department of Energy Office of Vehicle Technologies award number DE-EE0008213. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemistry (all)
- Chemical Engineering (all)