Effects of vitamin supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics in pigs

J. H. Cho, N. Lu, M. D. Lindemann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Three experiments involving a total of 405 crossbred pigs were performed to evaluate the effects of increasing vitamin supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics. A common vitamin premix (VP) that provided adequate amounts of vitamins (4 fat-soluble and 7 B vitamins), was added at varied levels in Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 1 used 125 weanling pigs with initial body weight (BW) of 7.5 ± 0.2 kg. Dietary treatments were basal diet with 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.25%, and 0.50% added VP. The experimental diets were fed for 28 d in a single phase. The results demonstrated that average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) linearly increased (P < 0.005) with increasing VP levels during d 14–21, d 21–28, and the overall 28-d period. Experiment 2 used 100 crossbred pigs with initial BW of 49.4 ± 1.0 kg. Dietary treatments were basal diet with 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% added VP. The experimental diets were fed for 67 d in a single phase. The results showed that the increasing VP levels did not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics of grower to finisher pigs. Experiment 3 was designed to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary supplementation of 5 B vitamins (niacin, riboflavin, folacin, pantothenic acid, and vitamin B12) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of nursery-finisher pigs. A total of 180 weanling pigs were provided a common diet without supplementation of the test B vitamins until they reached an average BW of 10 kg. Then, 155 pigs were selected for allotment. The experimental diets were fed in 3 phases corresponding to 10–20 kg, 20–50 kg, and 50–105 kg of BW, respectively; the 5 B vitamins were provided to be equivalent to 70%, 170%, 270%, 470%, and 870% of the NRC (1988) requirement estimates on a bioavailable basis for each BW phase. The results demonstrated that overall ADG and gain to feed ratio (G:F) increased quadratically (P < 0.05), while overall ADFI tended to increase linearly (P = 0.10) as dietary B vitamins increased. The loin depth, loin eye area, and lean gain improved with increasing B vitamin levels (quadratic, P < 0.05). In summary, increasing supplementation of VP beyond NRC (1988) requirement estimates improved ADG and ADFI of nursery pigs while supplementing a subset of 5 B vitamins improved growth performance and carcass characteristics of grower to finisher pigs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-32
Number of pages8
JournalLivestock Science
Volume204
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This is publication No. 17-07-004 of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with the approval of the Director. This work is supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Multistate project number KY007087 under accession number 1002298. Appreciation is expressed to BASF (Florham Park, NJ) for partial support of the studies, to J. Monegue and W. Patton for assistance in the care of pigs, and to D. Higginbotham for help in diet preparation.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • B vitamin
  • Carcass characteristics
  • Finisher pig
  • Grower pig
  • Growth performance
  • Nursery pig

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Veterinary (all)

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