Effects of written code-mixing on processing fluency and perceptions of organizational inclusiveness

Jessica Gasiorek, Marko Dragojevic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Participants read English-based online texts from fictional organizations that either included no code-mixing, Hawaiian words without glosses (i.e., parenthetical translations), or Hawaiian words with English glosses. Relative to no code-mixing, code-mixing without glosses disrupted processing fluency, leading participants to feel less welcome in the organization. Code-mixing with glosses did not disrupt fluency for participants from Hawai‘i, where this practice is common, but did for people from elsewhere. No differences in feeling welcome emerged between code-mixing with glosses and no code-mixing conditions. These results suggest that code-mixing in written organizational materials can have both costs (i.e., disrupted fluency) and benefits (i.e., cueing inclusiveness), and that these effects depend on audiences’ familiarity with code-mixing as a practice, and the format of code-mixing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)393-413
Number of pages21
JournalCommunication Monographs
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 National Communication Association.


  • Code-mixing
  • code-switching
  • intergroup
  • metacognition
  • processing fluency
  • social identity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication
  • Language and Linguistics


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