Electric Water Heater Modeling for Large-Scale Distribution Power Systems Studies with Energy Storage CTA-2045 Based VPP and CVR

Rosemary E. Alden, Huangjie Gong, Tim Rooney, Brian Branecky, Dan M. Ionel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


As the smart grid involves more new technologies such as electric vehicles (EVs) and distributed energy resources (DERs), more attention is needed in research to general energy storage (GES) based energy management systems (EMS) that account for all possible load shifting and control strategies, specifically with major appliances that are projected to continue electrification such as the electric water heater (EWH). In this work, a methodology for a modified single-node model of a resistive EWH is proposed with improved internal tank temperature for user comfort modeling and capabilities for conservation voltage reduction (CVR) simulations as well as Energy Star and Consumer Technology Association communications protocol (CTA-2045) compliant controls, including energy storage calculations for “energy take”. Daily and weekly simulations are performed on a representative IEEE test feeder distribution system with experimental load and hot water draw (HWD) profiles to consider user comfort. Sequential controls are developed to reduce power spikes from controls and lead to peak shavings. It is found that EWHs are suitable for virtual power plant (VPP) operation with sustainable tank temperatures, i.e., average water temperature is maintained at set-point or above at the end of the control period while shifting up to 78% of EWH energy out of shed windows per day and 75% over a week, which amounts to up to 23% of the total load shifted on the example power system. While CVR simulations reduced the peak power of individual EWHs, the aggregation effect at the distribution level negates this reduction in power for the community. The EWH is shown as an energy constant load without consistent benefit from CVR across the example community with low energy reductions of less than 0.1% and, in some cases, increased daily energy by 0.18%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4747
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • CTA-2045 standards
  • conservation voltage reduction
  • electric water heater
  • general energy storage
  • virtual power plant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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