In this work, we demonstrate accurate and precise measurement of manganese (Mn) concentration in human whole blood with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode using square wave stripping voltammetry. While an essential trace metal for human health, elevated levels of Mn due to environmental or occupational exposure have been associated with severe neuromotor dysfunction characterized by parkinsonism and cognitive dysfunction making the monitoring of Mn in whole blood necessary. Pediatric populations are particularly susceptible to Mn given their developing brain and potential long-term impacts on neurodevelopment. The current gold standard for whole blood Mn measurements is by ICP-MS, which is costly and time consuming. The electrochemical detection with ITO working electrode in this work showed a limit of detection of 0.5 μg l-1and a linear range of 5 to 500 μg l-1, which encompasses the physiological Mn levels in human whole blood (5 18 μg l-1). Our results of Mn measurement in whole blood show an average precision of 96.5% and an average accuracy of 90.3% compared to ICP-MS for both the normal range (5 18 μg l-1) and the elevated levels (>36 μg l-1) that require medical intervention. These results demonstrate the feasibility of Mn measurements in human blood with electrochemical sensors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number057508
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health and Sciences (R33ES024717; R01ES022933; P30ES026529; R01ES026446; R24ES030904), and by the Richard and Loan Hill Department of Bioengineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Electrochemical Society Inc.. All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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