Electromigration-induced damage in bamboo Al interconnects

J. Böhm, C. A. Volkert, R. Mönig, T. J. Balk, E. Arzt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Depletion and hillock formation were examined in-situ in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) during electromigration of bamboo Al interconnect segments. Hillocks formed directly at the anode ends of the segments by epitaxial addition of Al at the bottom Al/TiN interface. Depletion occurred nonuniformly from the cathode end and stopped once the distance between the leading void and the hillock reached the critical length for electromigration at the given current density. A modified equation for the drift velocity is proposed, which includes the effect of nonuniform depletion and predicts that interconnects with nonuniform depletion are more reliable than those with uniform depletion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number171
Pages (from-to)45-49
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2002


  • Electromigration
  • Hillock formation
  • Whisker formation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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