Elevated Urine Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Inflammatory Bladder Conditions: A Potential Biomarker for a Subgroup of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome Patients

Pedro L. Vera, David M. Preston, Robert M. Moldwin, Deborah R. Erickson, Behzad Mowlazadeh, Fei Ma, Dimitrios E. Kouzoukas, Katherine L. Meyer-Siegler, Magnus Fall

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24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To investigate whether urinary levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) are elevated in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) patients with Hunner lesions and also whether urine MIF is elevated in other forms of inflammatory cystitis. Methods: Urine samples were assayed for MIF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urine samples from 3 female groups were examined: IC/BPS patients without (N = 55) and with Hunner lesions (N = 43), and non-IC/BPS patients (N = 100; control group; no history of IC/BPS; cancer or recent bacterial cystitis). Urine samples from 3 male groups were examined: patients with bacterial cystitis (N = 50), radiation cystitis (N = 18) and noncystitis patients (N = 119; control group; negative for bacterial cystitis). Results: Urine MIF (mean MIF pg/mL ± standard error of the mean) was increased in female IC/BPS patients with Hunner lesions (2159 ± 435.3) compared with IC/BPS patients without Hunner lesions (460 ± 114.5) or non-IC/BPS patients (414 ± 47.6). Receiver operating curve analyses showed that urine MIF levels discriminated between the 2 IC groups (area under the curve = 72%; confidence interval 61%-82%). Male patients with bacterial and radiation cystitis had elevated urine MIF levels (2839 ± 757.1 and 4404 ± 1548.1, respectively) compared with noncystitis patients (681 ± 75.2). Conclusion: Urine MIF is elevated in IC/BPS patients with Hunner lesions and also in patients with other bladder inflammatory and painful conditions. MIF may also serve as a noninvasive biomarker to select IC/BPS patients more accurately for endoscopic evaluation and possible anti-inflammatory treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-62
Number of pages8
JournalUrology
Volume116
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Inc.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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