Purpose: This study determined the time course of the emergence of prevocalic stop consonants in young children with cleft palate following surgical repair. Method: A total of 120 children in four cohorts from three institutions were followed from 12 to 24 months of age: (a) 24 with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP), (b) 36 with repaired cleft palate only (CP), (c) 33 without clefts but with histories of frequent otitis media and ventilation tubes (OM), and (d) 27 typically developing (TD) children without clefts or OM. Emergence of prevocalic stops and symbolic language skills were determined during administration of the Communication and Symbolic Behavioral Scales Developmental Profile. Parametric survival models were fitted with and without covariates-recruitment site, gender, maternal education level, middle ear status, language ability, and age at surgery for children with clefts-to describe the time course of the emergence of prevocalic stops. Results: The estimated age at which 80% of children demonstrated prevocalic stop emergence was 15.0, 15.3, 18.9, and 21.8 months for TD, OM, CP, and CLP groups, respectively (p <.001, unadjusted model). Both CP and CLP cohorts had a significantly longer time to stop emergence than either the TD or OM cohorts, even after adjusting for covariates. Abnormal middle ear status, lower symbolic language ability, and older age at palatal surgery were significantly associated with delayed stop emergence. Conclusions: Survival model estimates show that four out of five children with repaired cleft palate will achieve emergence of prevocalic stop consonants by 19-22 months of age, corresponding to 9-12 months following palate repair. Clinical implications are discussed.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research|
|State||Published - Jan 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health under Award R01DE022566. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The authors would like to thank Betsy Crais, Jacqueline Dorry, Amelia Drake, Marziye Eshghi, Katie Garcia, Katlyn Latimer, Kristen Lynch, Kathleen McGrath, Margaret McQuillan, Maura Tourian, Marina Pastore, and Juliana Powell for assistance with various aspects of data collection and analysis.
© 2020 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Language and Linguistics
- Linguistics and Language
- Speech and Hearing