Mammalian systems have developed extensive molecular mechanisms to protect against the toxicity of many exogenous xenobiotic compounds. Interestingly, many detoxification enzymes, including cytochrome P450s and flavin-containing monooxygenases, and their associated transcriptional activators [e.g. the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)], have now been shown to have endogenous roles in normal physiology and the pathology of metabolic diseases. This mini-review will focus on two such instances: the role of flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) in the formation of the cardiometabolic disease biomarker trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and the role of AhR as a sensor of endogenous ligands such as those generated by the gut microbiota. Understanding the roles of xenobiotic sensing pathways in endogenous metabolism will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of how exposure to environmental pollutants can perturb these physiological processes.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Reviews on Environmental Health|
|State||Published - Mar 1 2017|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences at the National Institutes of Health [P42ES007380].
© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.
- cardiovascular disease
- metabolic pathologies
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health(social science)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health