Employment and earnings among ex-offenders with disabilities: A multivariate analysis of RSA-911 data

Glacia Ethridge, Angel Riddick Dowden, Michael Brooks, Ngai Kwan, Debra Harley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Ex-offenders with disabilities encounter barriers with obtaining employment upon post-release. Offender status may affect not only opportunities for employment, but earnings as well for ex-offenders with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to discuss barriers to employment for ex-offenders with disabilities and to identify how racial/ethnically marginalized ex-offenders are disproportionately unemployed and earn less than their White counterparts. METHODS: Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses utilizing archival Rehabilitation Services Administration Case Service Report (RSA-911) data from fiscal years 2004- 2013 was employed. RESULTS: Findings indicated that African American ex-offenders with disabilities are employed at higher rates than both Hispanic and White ex-offenders but earn less than both of these groups. CONCLUSIONS: Implications for VR service providers, training and policy reform are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-289
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Vocational Rehabilitation
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


  • African American
  • Hispanic/Latino
  • disability
  • employment
  • offender
  • rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Occupational Therapy


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