Endosome-associated CRT1 functions early in Resistance gene-mediated defense signaling in Arabidopsis and tobacco

Hong Gu Kang, Chang Sik Oh, Masanao Sato, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jane Glazebrook, Hideki Takahashi, Pradeep Kachroo, Gregory B. Martin, Daniel F. Klessig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Resistance gene-mediated immunity confers protection against pathogen infection in a wide range of plants. A genetic screen for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants compromised for recognition of turnip crinkle virus previously identified CRT1, a member of the GHKL ATPase/kinase superfamily. Here, we demonstrate that CRT1 interacts with various resistance proteins from different structural classes, and this interaction is disrupted when these resistance proteins are activated. The Arabidopsis mutant crt1-2 crh1-1, which lacks CRT1 and its closest homolog, displayed compromised resistance to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Additionally, resistance-associated hypersensitive cell death was suppressed in Nicotiana benthamiana silenced for expression of CRT1 homolog(s). Thus, CRT1 appears to be a general factor for resistance gene-mediated immunity. Since elevation of cytosolic calcium triggered by avirulent P. syringae was compromised in crt1-2 crh1-1 plants, but cell death triggered by Nt MEK2DD was unaffected in CRT1-silenced N. benthamiana, CRT1 likely functions at an early step in this pathway. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis led to identification of CRT1-Associated genes, many of which are associated with transport processes, responses to (a)biotic stress, and the endomembrane system. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation revealed that CRT1 localizes to endosome-like vesicles, suggesting a key process in resistance protein activation/signaling occurs in this subcellular compartment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)918-936
Number of pages19
JournalPlant Cell
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology


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