Energy-dense diets lower in protein, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids among US adults with a self-reported head injury with loss of consciousness: A nationwide study, NHANES 2011-2014

Jaclyn R. Barta, Sujin Kim, Hea Jin Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Head injury results in thousands of hospitalizations and deaths for Americans each year, yet there are no current dietary recommendations for improving outcomes after head injury. We assessed the dietary nutrient intakes in the population with self-reported head injury with loss of consciousness (HIC) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Secondary data analysis was performed on participants aged 40 years and over from the NHANES 2011-2014 surveys with and without head injury with loss of consciousness. The nutritional differences were measured between the HIC group and those who reported no head injury with loss of consciousness (No-HIC) based on average daily intakes of individual nutrients. We hypothesized that there would be dietary nutrient intake differences between the HIC and No-HIC groups. SPSS software was used to perform t tests comparing nutrient intakes of the HIC to No-HIC groups. The HIC group reported higher intakes of calories as well as carbohydrates, sugar, fat, and various vitamins and minerals compared with those in the No-HIC group. After adjusting for energy intakes, the intakes of sugar, riboflavin, alcohol, caffeine, and saturated fatty acids were higher in HIC group compared with the No-HIC group, and intakes of protein, fiber, thiamin, beta-carotene, selenium, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were lower in the HIC group compared with the No-HIC group. The HIC group currently is consuming a pro-inflammatory diet. Therefore, nutrition guidelines are essential to educate the head injury population to improve future health outcomes after injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-153
Number of pages7
JournalNutrition Research
Volume105
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Inc.

Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Diet
  • Inflammation
  • NHANES
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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