Energy-Efficient Fog Computing for 6G-Enabled Massive IoT: Recent Trends and Future Opportunities

Usman Mahmood Malik, Muhammad Awais Javed, Sherali Zeadally, Saif ul Islam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations


Fog computing is a promising technology that can provide storage and computational services to future 6G networks. To support the massive Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications in 6G, fog computing will play a vital role. IoT devices and fog nodes have energy limitations and hence, energy-efficient techniques are needed for storage and computation services. We present an overview of massive IoT and 6G-enabling technologies. We discuss different energy-related challenges that arise while using fog computing in 6G-enabled massive IoT. We categorize different energy-efficient fog computing solutions for IoT and describe the recent work done in these categories. Finally, we discuss future opportunities and open challenges in designing energy-efficient techniques for fog computing in the future 6G massive IoT network.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14572-14594
Number of pages23
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 15 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 IEEE.


  • 6G
  • Energy efficiency
  • fog computing
  • massive Internet of Things (IoT)
  • offloading

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Signal Processing
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computer Science Applications


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