Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass at high-solids loadings - A review

Alicia A. Modenbach, Sue E. Nokes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

347 Scopus citations


Enzymatic hydrolysis is the unit operation in the lignocellulose conversion process that utilizes enzymes to depolymerize lignocellulosic biomass. The saccharide components released are the feedstock for fermentation. When performed at high-solids loadings (≥15% solids, w/w), enzymatic hydrolysis potentially offers many advantages over conversions performed at low- or moderate-solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations and decreased capital and operating costs.The goal of this review is to provide a consolidated source of information on studies using high-solids loadings in enzymatic hydrolysis. Included in this review is a brief discussion of the limitations, such as a lack of available water, difficulty with mixing and handling, insufficient mass and heat transfer, and increased concentration of inhibitors, associated with the use of high solids, as well as descriptions and findings of studies that performed enzymatic hydrolysis at high-solids loadings. Reactors designed and/or equipped for improved handling of high-solids slurries are also discussed. Lastly, this review includes a brief discussion of some of the operations that have successfully scaled-up and implemented high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis at pilot- and demonstration-scale facilities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)526-544
Number of pages19
JournalBiomass and Bioenergy
StatePublished - Sep 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the United States Department of Agriculture National Institute for Food and Agriculture, Biomass Research and Development Initiative Grants # 11000000836 and # 2011-10006-30363 . The investigation reported in this study (No. 12-05-116) is a part of a project of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with the approval of the director.


  • Corn stover
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis
  • High-solids loadings
  • Lignocellulose conversion
  • Reactor design
  • Woody biomass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Waste Management and Disposal


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