Equine influenza diagnosis: Sample collection and transport

Thomas M. Chambers, Stephanie E. Reedy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


In horses, presumptive diagnosis of equine influenza is commonly made on the basis of clinical signs. This alone is insufficient for confirmation of equine influenza, because other equine infectious respiratory diseases can in some degree have similar clinical presentations. Surveillance and control of equine influenza also necessitate detection of subclinical cases. Effective diagnosis of equine influenza virus infection is critically dependent on obtaining adequate specimens of virus-containing respiratory secretions for testing. These specimens are also valuable as sources for isolation of virus strains for antigenic characterization and potential inclusion in vaccines. Both nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal swabs are employed in horses. These differ little in their invasiveness, but nasopharyngeal swabs typically yield more virus than nasal swabs and are superior diagnostic specimens. Methods for obtaining nasopharyngeal swab specimens are described.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-377
Number of pages7
JournalMethods in Molecular Biology
StatePublished - 2014


  • Equine influenza
  • Nasal swab
  • Nasopharyngeal swab

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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