Euclidean-Division-Based Low-Complexity Precise Analytical Approach of BLE-Like Neighbor Discovery Latency

Wei Bai, Jin Chen, Yuhua Xu, Fei Song, Haichao Wang, Guoxin Li, Yutao Jiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Neighbor discovery is the procedure to establish a first contact between two wireless devices. For duty-cycled low-power devices, energy consumption is closely related to neighbor discovery latency. Actually, in recent protocols, such as Bluetooth low energy (BLE) or ANT+, neighbor discovery latency is determined by the parameters used by the devices, such as advertising interval, scan window, scan interval, and so on. A fundamental problem of the BLE-like protocol is that the exact relation between parameters and discovery latency has not been fully analyzed. In this article, we propose a Euclidean-division-based low-complexity precise analytical approach that can derive the mathematical expressions of both worst-case latency and average latency for any parameter groups. It is confirmed by simulation results that our solution can make highly accurate predictions about the value of latencies. Simulation results also show that the proposed solution has an extremely low complexity. Moreover, we derive the lower bound of latency for given duty cycles, which provides useful guidelines for the choice of energy-efficient parameter groups for BLE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4184-4201
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the Nature Science Foundation on Frontier Leading Technology Basic Research Project of Jiangsu under Grant BK20212001; in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 62061013, Grant 62001514, Grant 62271501, Grant 62101595, and Grant 62101594; and in part by the Jiangsu Province Natural Science Foundation under Grant BK20200580.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 IEEE.


  • Bluetooth low energy (BLE)
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • neighbor discovery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Signal Processing
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computer Science Applications


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