Evaluating post radical prostatectomy mechanisms of early continence

Akshay Sood, Ralph Grauer, Wooju Jeong, Mohit Butaney, Anudeep Mukkamala, Alex Borchert, Lee Baumgarten, Patrick J. Hensley, Firas Abdollah, Mani Menon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: To identify the periprostatic structures associated with early return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: We compared total continence results between four different techniques of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Specifically, we studied 1-week and 1-month zero-pad continence rates of anterior (n = 60), posterior (n = 59), a novel hybrid posterior-anterior (n = 12), and transvesical (n = 12) approaches of RARP. Each technique preserved a unique set of periprostatic anatomic structures, thereby, allowing evaluation of the individual impact of preservation of nerves, bladder neck, and space of Retzius with associated anterior support structures on early continence. Urethral length was preserved in all approaches. The space of Retzius was preserved in posterior and transvesical approaches, while the bladder neck was preserved in posterior and hybrid approaches. Nerve sparing was done per preoperative oncological risk. For all patients, 24-h pad usage rates and 24-h pad weights were noted at 1 week and 1 month after catheter removal. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of early continence. Data were obtained from prospective studies conducted between 2015 and 2021. Results: At 1 week, 15%, 42%, 45%, and 8% of patients undergoing anterior, posterior, hybrid, and transvesical RARP approaches, respectively, were totally continent (p = 0.003). These rates at 1 month were 35%, 66%, 64%, and 25% (p = 0.002), respectively. The transvesical approach, which preserved the space of Retzius but not the bladder neck, was associated with the poorest continence rates, while the posterior and hybrid approaches in which the bladder neck was preserved with or without space of Retzius preservation were associated with quickest urinary continence recovery. Bladder neck preservation was the only significant predictor of 1-week and 1-month total continence recovery in adjusted analysis, Odds ratios 9.06 (p = 0.001) and 5.18 (p = 0.004), respectively. Conclusions: The beneficial effect of the Retzius-sparing approach on early continence recovery maybe associated with bladder neck preservation rather than space of Retzius preservation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1186-1195
Number of pages10
Issue number12
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


  • anatomy
  • prostate cancer
  • prostatectomy
  • robotics
  • space of Retzius
  • urinary incontinence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluating post radical prostatectomy mechanisms of early continence'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this